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    thelawprofessor's Avatar
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    E-Discovery and Computer Forensics

    With the increase in the popularity of e-discovery and computer forensics matters, including paper discovery, please feel free to post your questions here. Detailed, industry information available!

    Forum posts are not legal advice, are for educational purposes only & are not substitutes for proper consultation with legal counsel.

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    Shredded Paper and E-recovery.

    I've heard that software has been developed that makes shredding documents redundant, even if it's confetti, yet businesses and governments continue to do this. Is it a question of volume?

    A computer hardrive can have data recovered even from low level formatting by analysis of track peaks and valleys illustrated by oscilliscope (old process). How much interpretation goes into this? What distinguishes the "layers" of overwritten data tracks?

    Different levels of policing agencies use different approaches to data recovery/interception. One method is a hard "punch" that recovers all trace data, but destroys the original evidence (ie the hardrive). Would the extracted data be admissable in court if the original is destroyed? How does the defense question the original or quality of the extraction in this case? (the "punch" method may have been retired by now

    In-line data interception has evolved to an almost absolute, yet with identity theft and mirror registry, how can the originator be proven absolute?

    If spyware (ie Spectre) is installed on an owners computer by a spouse, friend, business competitor or their computer agent, does this act have legal consequences if discovered?

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    You raise many good points.

    What do you mean software development that makes shredding redundant?

    Regarding hard drives, I don't believe that you can recover data from most low level formats if the drive was completely formatted (every bit formatted and thus all the files are actually erased) as opposed to a fast format (where only the "map" where the files are located are reset, no files appear in windows but the files are still on the hard disk and not erased.) I'm not sure what you mean by "layers" of overwritten tracks since that sounds to me more like what happens on a CDRW rather than a hard drive, where there are peaks versus a magnetic bit that gets turned on and off. I'd be interested in hearing more because it sounds like you are more knowledgeable than most!

    What is your question about Spyware? What is interesting to me is if information can be used as evidence by someone who gets information as a result of Spyware.

    Quote Originally Posted by Maccomb
    I've heard that software has been developed that makes shredding documents redundant, even if it's confetti, yet businesses and governments continue to do this. Is it a question of volume?

    A computer hardrive can have data recovered even from low level formatting by analysis of track peaks and valleys illustrated by oscilliscope (old process). How much interpretation goes into this? What distinguishes the "layers" of overwritten data tracks?

    Different levels of policing agencies use different approaches to data recovery/interception. One method is a hard "punch" that recovers all trace data, but destroys the original evidence (ie the hardrive). Would the extracted data be admissable in court if the original is destroyed? How does the defense question the original or quality of the extraction in this case? (the "punch" method may have been retired by now

    In-line data interception has evolved to an almost absolute, yet with identity theft and mirror registry, how can the originator be proven absolute?

    If spyware (ie Spectre) is installed on an owners computer by a spouse, friend, business competitor or their computer agent, does this act have legal consequences if discovered?

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    any answer???

    Quote Originally Posted by Maccomb View Post
    I've heard that software has been developed that makes shredding documents redundant, even if it's confetti, yet businesses and governments continue to do this. Is it a question of volume?

    A computer hardrive can have data recovered even from low level formatting by analysis of track peaks and valleys illustrated by oscilliscope (old process). How much interpretation goes into this? What distinguishes the "layers" of overwritten data tracks?

    Different levels of policing agencies use different approaches to data recovery/interception. One method is a hard "punch" that recovers all trace data, but destroys the original evidence (ie the hardrive). Would the extracted data be admissable in court if the original is destroyed? How does the defense question the original or quality of the extraction in this case? (the "punch" method may have been retired by now

    In-line data interception has evolved to an almost absolute, yet with identity theft and mirror registry, how can the originator be proven absolute?

    If spyware (ie Spectre) is installed on an owners computer by a spouse, friend, business competitor or their computer agent, does this act have legal consequences if discovered?
    I WOULD LOVE TO HEAR THE ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION..AND ALSO TO THE QUESTION... :"IS THERE ANY WAY THAT YOU CAN DETECT IF ANYONE HAS HACKED INTO YOUR COMPUTER?" THANKS. RS58

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    class action e-discovery

    My company has a class action lawsuit filed against
    it. As part of the data collection for the lawsuit,
    they want to copy everyone's hard drive. However, my
    computer that I use at work is my personal computer.
    I paid for it out of my own pocket - partially so that
    the company wouldn't just have blanket control over it
    and the data on it. There is one specific folder on
    my computer where all my work data is stored which I
    would be happy to turn over for the sake of this
    lawsuit. I would also be happy to turn over my work
    emails (I use this account for my personal emails, so
    there isn't any mixture with my work address). The
    rest of the data I feel is completely irrelevant to
    this lawsuit and I do not want it to leave my control.
    (Sidenote: I was also not employed by the company
    during 2001 and 2002 which are the years which the
    lawsuit mentions regarding my company's subscription
    policy).

    What are my rights?

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    thelawprofessor's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maccomb View Post
    I've heard that software has been developed that makes shredding documents redundant, even if it's confetti, yet businesses and governments continue to do this. Is it a question of volume?
    Not sure what you mean here. If you've got several bags of confetti, someone has to piece it together! The software can only do so much.

    A computer hardrive can have data recovered even from low level formatting by analysis of track peaks and valleys illustrated by oscilliscope (old process). How much interpretation goes into this? What distinguishes the "layers" of overwritten data tracks?
    This is not always possible. This is also a very expensive process and if you are looking for a few documents on a hard drive that contained many thousands, it can be a hopeless task.

    Different levels of policing agencies use different approaches to data recovery/interception. One method is a hard "punch" that recovers all trace data, but destroys the original evidence (ie the hardrive). Would the extracted data be admissable in court if the original is destroyed? How does the defense question the original or quality of the extraction in this case? (the "punch" method may have been retired by now
    Yes - extracted data can be admissible from my knowledge. Sometimes a neutral party is appointed by the court as the electronic evidence expert (also known as a "special master") who may certify a process. The defense will question the validity in the same way that it might challenge DNA evidence and it's really no different, just a different medium.

    In-line data interception has evolved to an almost absolute, yet with identity theft and mirror registry, how can the originator be proven absolute?

    If spyware (ie Spectre) is installed on an owners computer by a spouse, friend, business competitor or their computer agent, does this act have legal consequences if discovered?
    Yes - there are an increasing number of rulings about spouses spying on each other. I'll post one.
    Forum posts are not legal advice, are for educational purposes only & are not substitutes for proper consultation with legal counsel.

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    IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA
    FIFTH DISTRICT JANUARY TERM 2005

    BEVERLY ANN O'BRIEN,
    Appellant,
    v. Case No. 5D03-3484
    JAMES KEVIN O'BRIEN,
    Appellee.
    ________________________________/

    Opinion filed February 11, 2005
    Appeal from the Circuit Court
    for Orange County,
    Donald E. Grincewicz, Judge.
    Ryan Thomas Truskoski of Ryan Thomas
    Truskoski, P.A., Orlando, for Appellant.
    David F. Allen, Winter Park, for Appellee.
    SAWAYA, C.J.

    Emanating from a rather contentious divorce proceeding is an issue we must
    resolve regarding application of certain provisions of the Security of Communications
    Act (the Act) found in Chapter 934, Florida Statutes (2003). Specifically, we must
    determine whether the trial court properly concluded that pursuant to section 934.03(1),
    Florida Statutes (2003), certain communications were inadmissible because they were
    illegally intercepted by the Wife who, unbeknownst to the Husband, had installed a spyware program on a computer used by the Husband that copied and stored electronic
    communications between the Husband and another woman.

    When marital discord erupted between the Husband and the Wife, the Wife
    secretly installed a spyware program called Spector on the Husband’s computer. It is
    undisputed that the Husband engaged in private on-line chats with another woman
    while playing Yahoo Dominoes on his computer. The Spector spyware secretly took
    snapshots of what appeared on the computer screen, and the frequency of these
    snapshots allowed Spector to capture and record all chat conversations, instant
    messages, e-mails sent and received, and the websites visited by the user of the
    computer. When the Husband discovered the Wife’s clandestine attempt to monitor and
    record his conversations with his Dominoes partner, the Husband uninstalled the
    Spector software and filed a Motion for Temporary Injunction, which was subsequently
    granted, to prevent the Wife from disclosing the communications. Thereafter, the
    Husband requested and received a permanent injunction to prevent the Wife’s
    disclosure of the communications and to prevent her from engaging in this activity in the
    future. The latter motion also requested that the trial court preclude introduction of the
    communications into evidence in the divorce proceeding. This request was also
    granted. The trial court, without considering the communications, entered a final
    judgment of dissolution of marriage. The Wife moved for rehearing, which was
    subsequently denied.

    The Wife appeals the order granting the permanent injunction, the final judgment,
    and the order denying the Wife’s motion for rehearing on the narrow issue of whether
    the trial court erred in refusing to admit evidence of the Husband’s computer activities obtained through the spyware the Wife secretly installed on the computer. The Wife
    argues that the electronic communications do not fall under the umbra of the Act
    because these communications were retrieved from storage and, therefore, are not
    “intercepted communications” as defined by the Act. In opposition, the Husband
    contends that the Spector spyware installed on the computer acquired his electronic
    communications real-time as they were in transmission and, therefore, are intercepts
    illegally obtained under the Act.

    The trial court found that the electronic communications were illegally obtained in
    violation of section 934.03(1)(a)-(e), and so we begin our analysis with the pertinent
    provisions of that statute, which subjects any person to criminal penalties who engages
    in the following activities:

    (a) Intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or
    procures any other person to intercept or endeavor to
    intercept any wire, oral, or electronic communication;
    (b) Intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any
    other person to use or endeavor to use any electronic,
    mechanical, or other device to intercept any oral
    communication when:
    1. Such device is affixed to, or otherwise
    transmits a signal through, a wire, cable, or
    other like connection used in wire communication;
    or
    2. Such device transmits communications by
    radio or interferes with the transmission of such
    communication;
    (c) Intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any
    other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic
    communication, knowing or having reason to know that the
    information was obtained through the interception of a wire,
    oral, or electronic communication in violation of this
    subsection;
    (d) Intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of
    any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or
    having reason to know that the information was obtained
    through the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic
    communication in violation of this subsection; or
    (e) Intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any
    other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic
    communication intercepted by means authorized by
    subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (2)(b), paragraph (2)(c), s.
    934.07, or s. 934.09 when that person knows or has reason
    to know that the information was obtained through the
    interception of such a communication in connection with a
    criminal investigation, has obtained or received the
    information in connection with a criminal investigation, and
    intends to improperly obstruct, impede, or interfere with a
    duly authorized criminal investigation;
    shall be punished as provided in subsection (4).

    § 934.03(1)(a)-(e), Fla. Stat. (2003). Enactment of these prohibitions connotes “a policy
    decision by the Florida legislature to allow each party to a conversation to have an
    expectation of privacy from interception by another party to the conversation.” Shevin v.
    Sunbeam Television Corp., 351 So. 2d 723, 726-27 (Fla. 1977). The purpose of the Act
    is to protect every person’s right to privacy and to prevent the pernicious effect on all
    citizens who would otherwise feel insecure from intrusion into their private
    conversations and communications. Id.

    The clear intent of the Legislature in enacting section 934.03 was to make it
    illegal for a person to intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications. It is beyond
    doubt that what the trial court excluded from evidence are “electronic communications.”1

    The core of the issue lies in whether the electronic communications were intercepted.
    The term “intercept” is defined by the Act as “the aural or other acquisition of the
    contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use of any
    electronic, mechanical, or other device.” § 934.02(3), Fla. Stat. (2003). We discern that
    there is a rather fine distinction between what is transmitted as an electronic
    communication subject to interception and the storage of what has been previously
    communicated. It is here that we tread upon new ground. Because we have found no
    precedent rendered by the Florida courts that considers this distinction, and in light of
    the fact that the Act was modeled after the Federal Wiretap Act,2 we advert to decisions
    by the federal courts that have addressed this issue for guidance.3

    The federal courts have consistently held that electronic communications, in
    order to be intercepted, must be acquired contemporaneously with transmission and
    that electronic communications are not intercepted within the meaning of the Federal
    Wiretap Act if they are retrieved from storage. See Fraser v. Nationwide Mut. Ins. Co.,
    352 F.3d 107 (3d Cir. 2003); Theofel v. Farey-Jones, 359 F.3d 1066 (9th Cir.), cert.
    denied, 125 S. Ct. 48 (2004); United States v. Steiger, 318 F.3d 1039 (11th Cir.), cert. denied, 538 U.S. 1051 (2003); Konop v. Hawaiian Airlines, Inc., 302 F.3d 868 (9th Cir.
    2002), cert. denied, 537 U.S. 1193 (2003). These courts arrived at this conclusion
    based on the federal law definitions of (1) the term “intercept,” which is very similar to
    the definition in the Florida Act, (2) the term “wire communication,” which provides for
    electronic storage, and (3) the term “electronic communication,” which does not provide
    for electronic storage. The fact that the definition of “wire communication” provides for
    electronic storage while the definition of “electronic communication” does not, suggests
    to the federal courts that Congress intended “intercept” to include retrieval from storage
    of wire communications, but exclude retrieval from storage of electronic
    communications. The definition of “wire communication” in the Florida Act, unlike the
    Federal Wiretap Act, does not include a provision for retrieval from storage and,
    therefore, it is not clear whether the same rationale would be applied by the federal
    courts to provisions identical to the Florida Act. However, we need not decide whether
    electronic communications may never be intercepted from storage under the Florida Act
    because the particular facts and circumstances of the instant case reveal that the
    electronic communications were intercepted contemporaneously with transmission.
    Forum posts are not legal advice, are for educational purposes only & are not substitutes for proper consultation with legal counsel.

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    The Spector spyware program that the Wife surreptitiously installed on the
    computer used by the Husband intercepted and copied the electronic communications
    as they were transmitted. We believe that particular method constitutes interception
    within the meaning of the Florida Act, and the decision in Steiger supports this
    conclusion. In Steiger, an individual was able to hack into the defendant’s computer via
    a Trojan horse virus that allowed the hacker access to pornographic materials stored on
    the hard drive. The hacker was successful in transferring the pornographic material from that computer to the hacker’s computer. The court held that because the Trojan
    horse virus simply copied information that had previously been stored on the computer’s
    hard drive, the capture of the electronic communication was not an interception within
    the meaning of the Federal Wiretap Act. The court did indicate, however, that
    interception could occur if the virus or software intercepted the communication as it was
    being transmitted and copied it. The court stated:

    [T]here is only a narrow window during which an E-mail
    interception may occur—the seconds or mili-seconds before
    which a newly composed message is saved to any
    temporary location following a send command. Therefore,
    unless some type of automatic routing software is used (for
    example, a duplicate of all of an employee’s messages are
    automatically sent to the employee’s boss), interception of Email
    within the prohibition of [the Wiretap Act] is virtually
    impossible.

    Steiger, 318 F.3d at 1050 (quoting Jarrod J. White, E-Mail@Work.com: Employer
    Monitoring of Employee E-Mail, 48 Ala. L. Rev. 1079, 1083 (1997)).

    Hence, a valid distinction exists between a spyware program similar to that in Steiger, which simply breaks into a computer and retrieves information already stored on the hard drive, and a spyware program similar to the one installed by the Wife in the instant case, which copies the communication as it is transmitted and routes the copy to a storage file in the computer.

    The Wife argues that the communications were in fact stored before acquisition
    because once the text image became visible on the screen, the communication was no
    longer in transit and, therefore, not subject to intercept. We disagree. We do not
    believe that this evanescent time period is sufficient to transform acquisition of the
    communications from a contemporaneous interception to retrieval from electronic storage. We conclude that because the spyware installed by the Wife intercepted the
    electronic communication contemporaneously with transmission, copied it, and routed
    the copy to a file in the computer’s hard drive, the electronic communications were
    intercepted in violation of the Florida Act.

    We must next determine whether the improperly intercepted electronic
    communications may be excluded from evidence under the Act. The exclusionary
    provisions of the Act are found in section 934.06, Florida Statutes (2003), which
    provides that “[w]henever any wire or oral communication has been intercepted, no part
    of the contents of such communication and no evidence derived therefrom may be
    received in evidence . . . .” Conspicuously absent from the provisions of this statute is
    any reference to electronic communications. The federal courts, which interpreted an
    identical statute contained in the Federal Wiretap Act, have held that because provision
    is not made for exclusion of intercepted electronic communications, Congress intended
    that such communications not be excluded under the Federal Wiretap Act. See Steiger.
    We agree with this reasoning and conclude that the intercepted electronic
    communications in the instant case are not excludable under the Act. But this does not
    end the inquiry.

    Although not specifically excludable under the Act, it is illegal and punishable as
    a crime under the Act to intercept electronic communications. § 934.03, Fla. Stat.
    (2003). The trial court found that the electronic communications were illegally
    intercepted in violation of the Act and ordered that they not be admitted in evidence.
    Generally, the admission of evidence is a matter within the sound discretion of the trial
    court. See Stewart & Stevenson Servs., Inc. v. Westchester Fire Ins. Co., 804 So. 2d 584, 587 (Fla. 5th DCA 2002); Forester v. Norman Roger Jewell & Brooks Int’l, Inc., 610
    So. 2d 1369, 1372 (Fla. 1st DCA 1992) (“[T]he admission of evidence is within the
    sound judicial discretion of the trial judge, whose decision in such regard must be
    viewed in the context of the entire trial.”) (citation omitted); see also Globe v. State , 877
    So. 2d 663, 672 (Fla. 2004) (“‘A trial judge’s ruling on the admissibility of evidence will
    not be disturbed absent an abuse of discretion.’”) (quoting Blanco v. State, 452 So. 2d
    520 (Fla. 1984), cert. denied, 469 U.S. 1181 (1985)); Shearon v. Sullivan, 821 So. 2d
    1222, 1225 (Fla. 1st DCA 2002) (“The standard of review of a trial court’s exclusion of
    evidence is abuse of discretion”) (citation omitted). Because the evidence was illegally
    obtained, we conclude that the trial court did not abuse its discretion in refusing to admit
    it. See Daniels v. State, 381 So. 2d 707 (Fla. 1st DCA 1979), aff’d, 389 So. 2d 631
    (1980); Horn v. State, 298 So. 2d 194 (Fla. 1st DCA 1974), cert. denied, 308 So. 2d 117
    (Fla. 1975).

    We affirm the orders and the final judgment under review in the instant case.
    AFFIRMED.

    SHARP, W. and MONACO, JJ., concur.

    Footnotes

    1The term “electronic communications” is defined in section 934.02(12), Florida
    Statutes (2003), as “any transfer of signs, signals, writi ng, images, sounds, data, or
    intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic, or photooptical system that affects intrastate, interstate,
    or foreign commerce . . . .”

    2What we label the Federal Wiretap Act is found in 18 U.S.C. § 2501, et seq., as
    amended by Title I of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, Pub. L. No.
    99-508, Title I, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986).

    3See Jackson v. State, 636 So. 2d 1372, 1374 (Fla. 2d DCA 1994) (stating, in
    reference to the Act, that “[w]e also examine its interpretation by the federal courts
    under Florida’s established rule of statutory construction ‘which recognizes that if a state
    law is patterned after a federal law on the same subject, the Florida law will be accorded
    the same construction as in the federal courts to the extent the construction is
    harmonious with the spirit of the Florida legislation.’”) (quoting O’Loughlin v. Pinchback,
    579 So. 2d 788, 791 (Fla. 1st DCA 1991)), approved, 650 So. 2d 24 (Fla. 1995).
    Forum posts are not legal advice, are for educational purposes only & are not substitutes for proper consultation with legal counsel.

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    concealed carry

    Quote Originally Posted by thelawprofessor View Post
    With the increase in the popularity of e-discovery and computer forensics matters, including paper discovery, please feel free to post your questions here. Detailed, industry information available!
    Don't know if I have correct area, but here goes. Concerning "Right to carry" laws.
    My question is: According to what I understand, with a concealed carry permit, why
    is it against the law to carry ones weapon in a commercial truck? As I understand the
    issue, the federal and states government are not allowed to interfere with the "right
    to keep and bear arms".
    Hoping you can assist me with this.
    Thank you.
    Craig

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    Along these lines, a friend of mine is going through a divorce -- his wife is having an affair. No court orders have been entered. Mediation is a month away. My friend has gained access to his wife's email account and has reviewed or printed certain correspondences which confirm the affair.

    1) Is the information admissible? 2) Did he violate anything in the process of discovering the emails, and what would be the penalty if so?

    Thanks for the help.....

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    The providence of the document would probably lead to inadmissibility in criminal court. Email addresses can be made in anyone's name and used. They are generally not viewed as credible or admitted if she does not confirm they are valid. More so, the way he got them ………..illegally without her consent would probably toss them out in criminal court. In civil matters, it could go either way….Since they are married, he might have read them if she left her email box open and can use it to prove why he wants the divorce. He has a fair chance of getting them accept it if he did not bend the law to get it and just browsed on their computer with her box open. There would be no penalty for him if they can’t prove he committed a crime in getting the email…remember they are legally married and could see or discovered such events…………..even from email at home. In a civil case he has a better that 50% chance of introducing this as evidence.

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    A little more on my friend's dilemma. Regardless of how he got the email documents, there is a threat to his life in one of the documents.

    Does it matter how the documents were acquired if there is a threat to his life in the document?

    The proposed use of the documents would be in civil litigation leading to a divorce, and possibly in a civil suit thereafter in a separate but related action. Is it possible to just subpeona the documents and disregard how they were acquired in the first place?

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    I told you she is his wife until the divorce is final. It is fair to assume that he has the right or could have seen her email………It is not unusual for spouses to snoop into each other’s stuff…It is not a crime. If there is a threat on his life, he should call the cops ASAP. They would look into it and take it serious regardless of how he got it. He would have to reveal the source in court to show credibility and authenticity. What do you mean by subpoena the documents? From who? If you are talking about getting the documents from his wife, it is her privacy and you can’t get it.. She has the right to deny against self incrimination or on privacy grounds. She can even claim it has been deleted. You can only force her to produce it only in a criminal investigation if the police think a crime has been committed and it can be used as evidence.

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    Might be a way of making e-discovery more effective

    Here's a request for some opinions and professional-judgment input from members of this forum.

    As a practising attorney, I'm involved in fine-tuning new software that does one specific, but important, aspect of e-discovery better, in fact much better, than any other approach I have seen.

    The software is not going to be available for some time. I'm not writing in order to sell it; in fact I have no interest in selling it since I'm an outside consultant to the technology developers.

    What I am interested in doing is speaking with litigators, and to the consultants who provide litigators with support and advice. The conversation will be brief and oriented towards simply understanding how they use electronic document management platforms today. That sort of information might be invaluable in deciding on the feature set and other aspects of the new software.

    The software's developers have told me they are happy to give any lawyer who responds a coupon good for six months of no-charge use of the software if and when it is commercially released.

    If you'll get back to me at subscriber2@gmail.com with some suggested times, I will be glad to phone, or alternatively we can do this via email.

    Thanks.

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    ok .. here's my Question, posted in another Forum ..

    My wife locked me out of the residence a year ago, I was self employed, my business was run from our residence
    .......after many Court meetings, she admits to having my Business Records ..

    Her Attorney states that I may view them, but not remove them ..

    As far as I am concerened, such records belong only to my self, and the Federal Gov., think " IRS"

    Any helpfull input ..??

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